Everybody in the world is enthusiastic about galaxy. Well, I’m not indifferent either. All are very much interconnected to it by the nature. The idea of everybody is the idea that nature works with. This article depicts the humming sound that is going on in the galaxy
HUMMING SOUND?!!! You all may wonder as you know that sound doesn’t travel in space. Then where does this sound originate? It is because of two major reasons. One because of gravitational waves and the other due to the formation of stars. Now isn’t that quite interesting?
100 years before, Dr. Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity proposed or predicted the presence of gravitational waves. Many of us are not even sure what that actually is? Are we? Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of space time that propagates as waves at the speed of light generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outwards from the source.
These waves travel in the speed of light and are formed when two black holes tend to collide each other. It is measured by LASER INTERFEROMETER that is used in LIGO (LASER INTERFEROMETER GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OBSERVATORY). This equipment is about 4Km long vacuum tube with lasers reflected to them. This can detect changes by the width of an atom! Incredibly sensitive!! This much of sensitiveness is necessary to detect the ripple that is prevailing in the space. Actually the observed signal is like a humming sound. Yes, the humming of GOD, the humming of NATURE.
The picture above shows the pictorial representation of the gravitational waves.
In order to deeply understand the concept, here let us discuss few examples; actually waves are nothing but the compression and rarefaction of the space. Thus it means the expansion and shrinkage of the space.
Here it is an example demonstrating the concept; here the stones are equally spaced between the two men. Thus if the space expands the space in between the stones also increases (expands). Thus it is quite impossible for us to identify the expansion and contraction (that is the gravitational waves).
The scientists have identified a method, measuring distance by using light (especially laser) as shown in the picture beneath; If the distance is large (expansion) light takes greater time to reach the ends and if the distance is small it takes lesser time to reach the ends (contraction).
Thus using this principle they constructed LIGO, and whenever the waves passes through it (where there is expansion and contraction) the light (LASER) which is passing in between experiences a time lag or a difference in the actual time and the presence of gravitational waves is identified. It actually sounds like a humming in the noisy party.
The second thing that is mentioned is the sound during the formation of stars. Scientists are curious in determining the SFR (STAR FORMATION RATE). It is nothing but the rate at which stars form. It depends on the reserves of gas in the galaxy and the physical conditions. It is very much useful in tracing the universe backwards that is the formation of it.
They use many strategies in determining it. One of these strategies is that, they determine it by sending different wavelengths and receiving it back and calculating the rate of star formation. Until now it has left them in confusion because mechanisms which are not related to the formation of the massive stars can intervene.
Now an international organization led by IAC astrophysicist made a detailed analysis of the energy distribution across a sample galaxy. And, for the first time they measured the energy emitted during the formation of stars is within the frequency range of 1-10 Gigahertz which can be used to know as the star formation rates. The researchers used radio emission to determine this frequency because in their traditional methods they had many problems like tight correlation was detected between the radio and infrared wave emission, covering a range of four orders of magnitude, which leads to confusion all the time.
These frequency ranges are not absorbed by the interstellar dust. These waves are also emitted by several massive stars during several phases of formation. This study clarifies the nature of the feedback process occurring due to the star formation activity, which are the key factors in the evolution of galaxies.
As a result of this a sound is being observed which is regarded as the galaxies song while forming stars. From this the scientists inferred cosmic ray electrons are younger and are more energetic in galaxies with higher star formation rates, which can cause powerful winds and outflows and have important consequences in the regulation of star formation.